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Visa fullständig version : Den optimala återhämtningsdrinken?


King Grub
2006-09-30, 09:59
Ordet "optimala" var faktiskt inte min idé:

Hyperinsulinemia, hyperaminoacidemia and post-exercise muscle anabolism: the search for the optimal recovery drink. Br J Sports Med. 2006 Sep 1. (http://www.cc.jyu.fi/~jjhulmi/Manninen71.pdf#search=%22manninen71.pdf%22)

Sverker
2006-09-30, 10:11
Finns det en fälla här King Grub ?

Jag läser artikeln och ser att ett snabbt protein ( eg hydrolysat ), snabba kolhydrater och en dos rent leucin är mycket anabolt att dricka efter träningen !


Hur går detta ihop med tankarna kring att ta protein före träningen för att öka proteinsyntesen ytterligare ?

King Grub
2006-09-30, 10:18
Ingen fälla; artikeln behandlar helt enkelt inte företräningstillfället alls. Ett intag av protein och kolhydrat kring träning utesluter ju inte fler intag, och den här artikeln handlar om efterträningsintaget. Det faktum att EAA+kolhydrat före träning är effektivt för att stimulera anabolism, innebär inte att det inte finns tillfälle efter träningen att tillföra protein och kolhydrat då också. :)

Det här är ingen studie; inget som går att jämföra med t ex Tipton och Wolfes direkta mätningar. Det här en artikel, en persons tolkningar och slutsatser av dom studier som finns, men inget "så här är det".

Jaak
2006-09-30, 15:59
Skulle man kunna tänka sej att ett hydrolyserat protein med di- och tripeptider + ett extra tillskott av l-leucin minskar behovet av glukos efter träningspasset eftersom insulinnivåerna blir tillräckligt "boostade" ändå.

Om man tänker på glykogeninlagringen så borde det ju inte spela någon roll om man drar ner lite på druvsockret direkt efter passet. Det är ju ändå det totala intaget över hela dagen som spelar roll. Detta borde ju även gälla för de som intar gainers etc före/under sina pass också. Man kan genom att använda ett "snabbt" protein dra ner på druvsockerintaget och ändå få en fullgod återhämtningsdrink. (Lite funderingar........)

Fråga: Hur skiljer sig det insulinpåslag man får av det lättupptagliga proteinet mot det man får av lättupptagliga kolhydrater som druvsocker?
Fördelar/nackdelar?

aliquis
2006-09-30, 16:17
Jaak: Som jag har förståt det så blir glukogeninlagringen mycket sämre om man inte intar kolhydraterna rätt nära inpå passet, så nej, det går inte lika bra att ta kolhydraterna när som helst under dagen eftersom återhämtningen/-ställningen av glukogen/ny energi inför nästa pass inte blir lika bra.

aliquis
2006-09-30, 16:19
Fråga: Hur skiljer sig det insulinpåslag man får av det lättupptagliga proteinet mot det man får av lättupptagliga kolhydrater som druvsocker?
Fördelar/nackdelar?Tror insulinnivåerna höjdes 4 ggr mer av vasslehydrolysatet än av kolhydraterna ensamt.

EiseltUK
2006-09-30, 16:44
Skulle man kunna tänka sej att ett hydrolyserat protein med di- och tripeptider + ett extra tillskott av l-leucin minskar behovet av glukos efter träningspasset eftersom insulinnivåerna blir tillräckligt "boostade" ändå.

Det beror på vad målsättningen med det höga insulinet är? Vanligen tar man ju snabba kohydrater efter för att fylla på glykogenet.

Det är troligen mer optimalt att se först fylla på glykogenet med snabba kolhydrater och därefter antingen tillföra ett jämt flöde av snabba kolhydrater under längre tid eller äta långsamma kolhydrater vid några utvalda tilfällen för att hålla insulinet uppe på en hög och jämnt nivå under i varje fall de tre första timmarna efter träningen.

PowerG
2006-10-03, 20:33
The British Journal of Sports Medicine:

Hyperinsulinemia, hyperaminoacidemia and post-exercise muscle anabolism: the search for the optimal recovery drink

Anssi H. Manninen

Advanced Research Press, Inc., 690 Route 25A, Setauket, New York, 11733, USA

The Corresponding Author has the right to grant on behalf of all authors and does grant on behalf of all authors, an exclusive licence (or non exclusive for government employees) on a worldwide basis to the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and its
Licensees to permit this article (if accepted) to be published in Journal
(British Journal of Sports Medicine) editions and any other BMJPGL products to
exploit all subsidiary rights, as set out in our licence
(http://bjsm.bmjjournals.com/misc/ifora/licenceform.shtml).


Correspondence Anssi H. Manninen Senior Science Editor Advanced Research Press, Inc. E-mail:









Abstract

Dietary supplements and other ergogenic aids are popular among athletes. Recent studies have demonstrated that nutritional mixtures containing protein hydrolysates, added leucine, and high-glycemic carbohydrates strongly augment insulin secretion compared with the high-glycemic carbohydrates only trial. When post-exercise hyperinsulinemia is supported by protein hydrolysate and leucine ingestion-induced hyperaminoacidemia, net protein deposition in muscle should occur. Thus, post-exercise recovery drinks containing these nutrients may lead to increased skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength in conjuction with appropriate resistance training. However, the long-term effects on body composition and exercise performance remains to be determined.

Keywords: amino acids, protein hydrolysate, leucine, sports nutrition, ergogenic aids




Introduction

“The importance of nutrition following training-induced homeostatic disruption can be traced to our most ancient of writings. Esau, the first born of Isaac, in what is estimated to be 1800 B.C. appears to have had incredible genetics. His training sessions, however, were not found in the gym, but rather in the field as he hunted the most ferocious of beasts. So vital was the post-workout meal to the father of the Edomites that he sold his birthright to his brother Jacob for it!” [1]

Appropriate resistance exercise leads to significant skeletal muscle hypertrophy, which can occur through an increase in protein synthesis, a decrease in protein degradation, or both. While stimulus (i.e., resistance exercise) is important for muscle hypertrophy, nutrient availability appears to be a critical factor regulating the degree of hypertrophy. Obviously, the muscle´s hormonal milieu also has a major impact on protein synthesis.

It is now apparent that both increased insulin and increased availability of amino acids are important to maximize the muscle protein anabolism. If hyperinsulinemia is not supported by an exogenous amino acid supply, plasma as well as muscle free amino acid concentrations drop due to reduced splanchnic release [2]. On the other hand, if amino acid concentratios are maintained at normal or higher levels, net protein deposition in muscle will occur because of a stimulation of synthesis, and possibly because of simultaneous decrease in breakdown [2].

The importance of availability of amino acids for the stimulatory effects of insulin to be evident was highlighted by Bennet et al, who reported that insulin, given with sufficient amino acids, can stimulate leg and whole body protein balance by mechanisms including stimulation of protein synthesis and inhibition of protein breakdown [3]. This is in line with the recent data by Borsheim et al., who showed that protein balance over the muscle remains negative after resistance exercise when only carbohydrate (CHO) is ingested [4]. In sharp contrast, amino acid ingestion alone significantly increases muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise [5]. However, consumption of both amino acids and CHO results in much greater effects on muscle protein anabolism [6], suggesting an interactive effect between insulin, amino acid availability, and resistance exercise. Also, it is well-established that the stimulatory effect of amino acids after exercise is greater than the effect of amino acids on muscle protein synthesis when given at rest [7]. Thus, nutrient timing is also an important consideration [8-11].

Given the fact that raising the plasma insulin level is key to stimulating muscle protein synthesis and limiting protein catabolism following exercise [12], it is not surprising that some athletes abuse insulin to increase skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Insulin injections reportedly can produce “rapid and noticeable [muscle] growth... almost immediately after starting insulin therapy” [13]. Most athletes choose to administer insulin immediately after a workout [13]; they apparently realize that it is the most anabolic time of the day to use this hormone. However, insulin abuse is extremely risky – one mistake in dosage or diet can be fatal. Fortunately, recent studies have focused on safe insulinotropic nutritional mixtures containing protein hydrolysates, certain added amino acids (especially leucine), and high-glycemic CHO (e.,g., dextrose, maltodextrine) [14-18].
In this paper, it is proposed that post-exercise hyperinsulinemia supported by protein hydrolysate and leucine ingestion-induced hyperaminoacidemia increases net protein deposition in muscle, leading to increased skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength in conjuction with appropriate resistance training. Firstly, this review provides some information on 1) amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion, 2) leucine´s effects on post-exercise muscle protein synthesis, and 3) protein hydrolysates. Then, the studies examing the effects of insulinotropic nutritional mixtures on insulin secretion, nitrogen utilization, and post-exercise muscle protein anabolism are reviewed. Finally, the effects of post-exercise hyperinsulinemia on fat oxidation and de novo lipogenesis are discussed.

Amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion
Formerly, it was believed that insulin secretion was controlled almost entirely by the blood glucose concentration. However, it later become apparent that amino acids also play very important role in controlling insulin secretion. Certain amino acids cause insulin release in humans even under conditions where the blood sugar changes little from its basal level [19]. However, changes of blood sugar levels markedly influence the responsiveness of beta cells to individual amino acids. Studies on isolated perfused rat pancreas and islets have demonstrated that physiological amino acid mixtures and even pharmacological concentrations of individual amino acids require the presence of permissive levels of glucose (2.5 to 5.0 mM) to be effective beta cell stimulants [19]. However, leucine is an exception [20]. Contrary to popular belief, oral arginine is not a effective insulin secretagogue [14].

Effects of leucine on post-exercise muscle protein synthesis
The key branched-chain amino acid leucine acts as a nutrient signal to stimulate muscle protein anabolism. Leucine affects muscle protein metabolism by decreasing the rate of protein degradation [21] most likely via increases in circulating insulin. In addition, leucine affects phosphorylation of key proteins involved in the regulation of protein synthesis, which has been shown to occur even in the absence of an increase in circulating insulin concentrations [22]. After exercise, recovery of muscle protein synthesis requires dietary protein or branched-chain amino acids to increase tissue levels of leucine [23]. The important bottom line is that insulin and leucine allow skeletal muscle to coordinate protein synthesis with physiological state and dietary intake [23]. For more detailed reviews, see the recent papers by Norton & Layman [23], Blomstrand et al. [24], and Garlick [25].

Protein hydrolysates
Protein hydrolysates are produced from purified protein sources by heating with acid or preferably, addition of proteolytic enzymes, followed by purification procedures [26]. Extreme bitterness is a negative attribute associated with most protein hydrolysates. Fortunately, specific debittering strategies have focused on the application of proline specific exo- and endopeptidases given the contribution of proline residues to hydrolysate bitterness [27]. Hydrolysis process mimics our own digestive actions; thus, some feel it is an ideal way to process dietary protein. Extensively hydrolyzed proteins containing mostly di- and tripeptides are absorbed more rapidly than free form amino acids and much more rapidly than intact (non-hydrolyzed) proteins [26,28,29]. The considerably greater absorption rate of amino acids from the di- and tripeptides than from the amino acid mixture appears to be the result of uptake by a system that has a greater transport capacity than amino acid carrier system, thus minimizing competition among its substrates [28]. Each protein hydrolysate is a complex mixture of peptides of different chain length together with free amino acids, which can be defined by a global value known as degree of hydrolysis (DH), which is the fraction of peptide bonds that have been cleaved in the starter protein [30]. However, two protein hydrolysates made by different methods (e.g., oligopeptides/significant free amino acids vs. mainly di- and tripeptides) may have a similar DH even though their absoption kinetics are likely to be quit different [31]. Consequently, it has been suggested that it is better to use the term “peptide chain length profile” [31].

It seems that only di- and tripeptides, which remain after luminal and brush-border peptidase digestion, are absorbed intact [32]. Tetra- and higher peptides appear to require brior brush-border hydrolysis before their hydrolysis products can be absorbed [32]. While the starter protein and method of hydrolysis affect absorptive characteristics, the peptide-chain length is the most important variable. Protein hydrolysates produced from various sources showed increased amino acid absorption in humans when the propotion of di- and tripeptides was increased [32]. Thus, in order to maximize absoption rate, the ideal protein hydrolysate should contain mainly di- and tripeptides. Such a protein hydrolysate seems to produce the most immediate hyperaminoacidemia. In general, it is the kinetics of the absorption (rather than the net absorption of amino acids) that determines the greater nutritional value of the protein hydrolysates. The use of a protein hydrolysate in the post-exercise drinks is preferred because it results in a faster increase in plasma amino acid concentrations during a 2-h period than does intact protein [14], and in turn the levels of essential amino acids in the blood regulate muscle protein synthesis [33]. A practical advage is that one can ingest a protein hydrolysate-containing supplement immediately after exercise without getting bloated and not excessively suppressing appetite, so one can eat another meal sooner, possibly optimizing the post-exercise “anabolic window”. In addition, protein hydrolysate ingestion has a strong insulinotropic effect [14-18].

Clearly, hydrolyzed whey protein is the most popular protein hydrolysate among athletes. Whey protein has been singled out as the ultimate source of protein based on an excellent amino acid profile [26,34]. Whey may offer other benefits too [34-39]. Casein hydrolysate is also utilized in some commercial protein mixtures. It should be realized that the biological value of hydrolyzed collagen (also known as gelatin) is zero; thus, collagen supplementation as a protein source is not recommended. However, it has been suggested that hydrolyzed collagen may be useful in counteracting degenerative joint diseases [40,41]. Finally, some commerical products are enriched with wheat gluten hydrolysate (i.e., “glutamine peptides”). Wheat gluten has a unique amino acid profile: glutamyl residues accont for about 40% of the amino acids [42]. Glutamine is an important fuel for some cells of the immune system and may have specific immunostimulatory effects [43].

It is worth noting that “classical” model of protein metabolism, which views nitrogen intake in terms of the flux of free amino acids from dietary protein and their exhange between plasma and intracellular compartments and between free and protein-bound amino acids is misleading, because it ignores the flux of amino acids trough intermediate pools of small peptides [32].


Effects of insulinotropic nutritional mixtures on insulin secretion and nitrogen utilization
A study by Calbet and MacLean was implemented to determine the effects different protein-containing solutions have on insulin response and amino acid availability in healthy humans [44]. Four different 600 mL solutions were used. The glucose solution (control) contained only glucose (25 g/L), and the three additional solutions contained the same quantity of glucose plus protein (0.25 g/kg body mass) but proteins were derived from different sources: whey hydrolysate, pea hydrolysate, and a complete cow´s milk solution. This study indicated that:
1. Ingestion of glucose and protein hydrolysate results in a synergistic and fast increases in plasma insulin. In fact, protein hydrolysates stimulated an increase in plasma insulin that was two and four times greater than that produced by the intact milk protein solution and glucose solution, respectively.
2. Protein hydrolysates are absorbed at a faster rate from the small intestine than are intact milk proteins, as reflected by the rapid increase in the plasma concentration of branched-chain amino acids in peripheral blood.
3. Whey protein hydrolysate elicited the greatest availability of amino acids during the three-hour postprandial period. The authors attributed this difference to the rapid increase in plasma amino acids evoked during the first 40 minutes of the digestive period, during which the increase was about 37% greater after the ingestion of whey protein hydrolysate solution than that after ingestion of the intack milk protein solution.
It is likely that the high levels of plasma amino acids and increased insulin explains a superiority of protein hydrolysates over intact proteins in promoting better nitrogen utilization. The co-ingestion of carbohydrate appears to affect the absorption kinetics, as one study showed that whey and casein proteins and their respective hydrolysates administered alone produce similar rates of intestinal absorption of amino acids [45]. Alternatively, it is possible that this study used protein hydrolysates containing mainly oligopeptides.

More recently, Kaastra et al. determined the extent to which the combined ingestion of high-glycemic carbohydrates (CHO) and a casein protein hydrolysate with or without additional free leucine can increase insulin levels during post-exercise recovery [17]. Fourteen male athletes were subjected to three randomized crossover trials in which they performed 2 h of exercise. Thereafter, subjects were studied for 3.5 h during which they ingested CHO only (0.8 g/kg/h), CHO + protein hydrolysate (0.8 and 0.4 g/kg/h, respectively), or CHO + protein hydrolysate + free leucine (0.8, 0.4, and 0.1 g/kg/h, respectively) in a double-blind fashion. The results revealed that plasma insulin responses were 108% and 190% greater in the CHO + protein hydrolysate and CHO + protein hydrolysate + leucine trial, respectively, compared with the CHO only trial. This study also indicated that addition of free phenylalanine, as applied in earlier studies [15,16], is not necessary to obtain such high post-exercise insulin responses.
Similarly, Manders et al. examined plasma insulin responses after co-ingestion of casein protein hydrolysate with and without additional free leucine with a single bolus of high-glycemic CHO [18]. Again, the subjects participated in 3 trials in which blood insulin responses were determined after the ingestion of beverages of different composition: CHO only (0.7 g/kg), CHO + protein hydrolysate (0.7 and 0.3 g/kg, respectively) or CHO + protein hydrolysate + free leucine (0.7, 0.3 and 0.1 g/kg, respectively). The result indicated that plasma insulin responses were 66 and 221% greater in the healthy subjects in the CHO + protein hydrolysate and CHO + protein hydrolysate + free leucine trials, respectively, compared with those in the CHO only trial. In other words, this study also demostrated that co-ingestion of a protein hydrolysate with additional leucine strongly augments insulin secretion after the consumption of a single bolus of CHO.
This is in line with the data by Calbet and Holst, who reported that whey and casein hydrolysates elicited about 50% more gastric secretion than intact protein solutions, which was accompanied by higher glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) plasma levels during the first 20 min of the gastric emptying process [45]. Besides well-known effects on pancreatic beta cells, GIP also has direct metabolic effects on other tissues and organs, such as muscle, liver and adipose tissue, with most of its functions tending to increase anabolism.
The notion that the protein hydrolysates have strong insulinotropic properties is also supported by the studies examing the effects of intact protein-containing post-exercise drinks. Ivy et al. compared effects CHO + intact protein (80 g of CHO, 28 g of protein, 6 g of fat), low-CHO (80 g of CHO, 6 g of fat), or high-CHO (108 g of CHO, 6 of fat) and reported that plasma insulin levels did not differ at any time among treatments [46]. However, Zawadzki et al. observed that plasma insulin levels for the CHO + intact protein treatment (112 and 40.7 g, respectively) were somewhat higher than those for the CHO treatment (112 g of CHO) [47].

A post-exercise drink containing a mixture of free amino acids also has a potent effect on insulin secretion [6]. However, a large dose of amino acids can cause gastrointestinal discomfort. This may have something to do with the drink´s osmolarity. A protein hydrolysate containing di- and tripeptides reduces osmolarity because equal solution weights of di- and tripeptides have one and one-third the osmolarity of free amino acids, respectively [32].



Effects of insulinotropic nutritional mixtures on post-exercise muscle anabolism
A sophisticated study by Koopman et al. investigated post-exercise muscle protein synthesis and whole body protein balance following the combined ingestion of high-glycemic CHO with or without whey protein hydrolysate and/or leucine [16]. Their nutritional protocol was rather rigorous; the subjects received a beverage volume of 3 ml/kg every 30 min to ensure a given dose of 0.3 g high-glycemic CHO/kg and 0.2 g/kg of a protein hydrolysate every hour, with or without the addition of 0.1 g/kg/h free leucine. Repeated boluses were taken every 30 minutes until t = 330 minutes after exercise. The results revealed that the whole body protein synthesis rates were highest in the CHO + protein hydrolysate + leucine trial: 95.6 ± 0.1 vs. 92.0 ± 0.4 and 94.2 ± 0.4% in the CHO and CHO + protein hydrolysate trials, respectively. Similarly, fractional synthetic rate (FSR) in the vastus lateralis muscle was significantly greater in the CHO + protein hydrolysate + leucine trial compared with the CHO trial (0.095 ± 0.006 vs. 0.061 ± 0.008%/h, respectively), with intermediate values observed in the CHO + protein hydrolysate trial (0.0820 ± 0.0104%/h).

PowerG
2006-10-03, 20:34
Furthermore, the investigators found plasma insulin responses to be negatively correlated with whole body protein degradation, whereas whole body protein synthesis was positively correlated with plasma insulin response. However, FSR did not correlate with the plasma insulin response, whereas mixed muscle protein FSR did correlate with the amount of leucine that was ingested. It is difficult to interpret these results given the massive supplementation. Nevertheless, the authors concluded that, ”the additional ingestion of free leucine in combination with protein and carbohydrate likely represents an effective strategy to increase muscle anabolism following resistance exercise.” Other recent studies have shown that relatively small doses of leucine can improve exercise performance [48] and enhance the acquisition of strength [49].
Although the Koopman study indicates that dietary supplementation-induced post-exercise hyperinsulinemia plus hyperaminoacidemia can have favourable effects on the acute phase response to resistance training, the effects of repeated supplementation on long term adaptations to resistance training are currently unclear. To shed some light on this issue, Bird et al. examined the effects of chronic high-glycemic CHO and/or essential amino acid supplementation on hormonal and muscular adaptations in untrained young men [50]. All subjects followed the same supervised, resistance training protocol two times per week for 12 weeks. Following resistance exercise, the subjects consumed either a high-glycemic CHO, a essential amino acid (6 g), a combined high-glycemic CHO + essential amino acid supplement, or a placebo containing only aspartame and citrus flavouring. The results revealed that CHO + essential amino acid supplementation enhances muscular and hormonal adaptations to a greater extent than either CHO or essential amino acids consumed independently. Specifically, CHO + essential amino acid ingestion demonstrated the greatest relative increase in type I muscle fiber cross sectional area. Changes in type II muscle fibers exhibited a similar trend.

While beyond a scoop of this paper, it is very likely that chronic reductions in the exercise-induced cortisol response associated with post-exercise CHO-amino acid ingestion also positively impact the skeletal muscle hypertrophic adaptation to resistance training via reductions in hormone-mediated protein degradation. For reviews, see the recent papers by Volek [51], Kraemer and Ratamess [52], and Crewther et al. [53].

You can have your protein shake and drink it too

Contrary to some belief, higher protein intake has no adverse effects on healthy kidneys [54,55], fluid status [56], or bone [57-60]. In fact, proteins appears to have positive effects on bone health, as they increase circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1), which plays an important role in bone formation [58]. For example, Ballard et al. reported that a protein supplement during a strength and conditioning program led to an increase in plasma concentrations of IGF-I in those subjects compared with the concentrations in a group of persons who also trained but consumed a isocaloric CHO supplement [60]. Also, serum bone alkaline phosphatase concentrations increased over time and tended to be higher in the protein group than in the CHO group, indicating increased bone formation.

In addition, IGF-I plays a critical role in development, growth, repair, and maintenance of skeletal muscle [61]. Thus, IGF-I may partially explain why many strenght-power athletes (especially bodybuilders) feel that a very high protein intake is beneficial for skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Indeed, studies indicate increased positive nitrogen balance when protein intake is increased [62]; however, more reseach is clearly needed before the mystery of protein requirements in those attempting to increase muscle mass is settled [62-65]. Traditionally, the term "protein requirement" have meant the amount of dietary protein that must be consumed to provide the amino acids needed for the synthesis of those proteins irreversibly catabolized in the course of the body's metabolism. It should be noted, however, that the strength-power athletes are not concerned with the minimum amount of protein necessary to sustain normal body functions, but rather, with their absolute gains in muscle mass and strength. Other potential benefits of higher protein intake should be considered too [66-70].

Interestingly, a recent placebo-controlled study by Flakoll et al. reported that post-exercise protein-CHO supplementation 1) reduces bacterial/viral infections, 2) decreases medical visits due to muscle or joint problems, 3) diminishes episodes of heat exhaustion, 4) reduces muscle soreness, and 5) improves rifle scores in US Marine recruits during basic training [71].



Effects of post-exercise hyperinsulinemia on fat oxidation and de novo lipogenesis

The chief lipid-related functions of insulin are inhibition of lipolysis and lipid oxidation (at 13 and 44 mU/mL, respectively) [72]. When insulin concentration drops below 13 mU/mL, lipolysis is powerfully and exponentially stimulated [72]. Volek et al. reported that a very-low-carbohydrate diet significantly decreased serum insulin (-34%), and that about 70% of the variability in fat loss was accounted for by the decrease in serum insulin concentrations [73]. Further, exogenous insulin promotes body fat accumulation [74], so one could speculate that insulitropic supplements have similar effects. However, I feel this is hardly a concern for the healthy athletes when these supplements are ingested immediately after rigorous exercise when the muscle cells are highly receptive to insulin [75] and “screaming” for new fuel. The physiological state of that of a sedentary individual and that of a well-trained athlete following exercise are polar opposites. AMP-activated protein kinase acts as a “metabolic switch” in multiple tissues after exercise; the net effect of its activation is to increase fatty acid oxidation and diminish glycerolipid synthesis [76].

To investigate the hormonal and metabolic adaptations occurring when high glycemic CHO are ingested after exercise, Krezentowski et al. compared the fate of a 100-g oral glucose load in healthy volunteers after an overnight fast at rest either without previous exercise or after a 3-h exercise performed on a treadmill at about 50% of the individual VO2max [77]. Indirect calorimetry indicated that glucose ingestion in post-exercise recovery was associated with decreased CHO oxidation and increased lipid oxidation when compared to control conditions. More recently, Folch et al. reported that de novo lipogenesis is totally suppressed following exercise, even when a very large CHO load is ingested, and that fat oxidation remained high in subjects who had exercised following both the small and large CHO meal [78]. Finally, Bird et al. observed that post-exercise ingestion of high-glycemic CHO do not inhibit resistance training-induced fat loss [50].

Certainly, this author is not suggesting that insulinotopic supplements should be used while watching TV. It is possible that hyperinsulenemic condition prevalent in obese, insulin-resistant individuals is responsible for the repartitioning of fatty acids away from oxidation and toward storage [79].



Anti-inflammatory effects of insulin

Recently, Dandona et al. proposed that insulin is the ideal anti-inflammatory agent for critically ill patients, because it normalizes plasma glucose concentrations (glucose is proinflammatory) while exerting its anti-inflammatory effect [80]. In addition, insulin suppresses generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of p47phox, a key component of NADPH oxidase, the enzyme that generates the superoxide radical [80]. Thus, insulin has antioxidant effects too. Since strenous exercise produces muscle inflammation [81] as well as increases generation of ROS [82], it is possible that post-exercise hyperinsulinemia offers additional benefits beyond muscle protein synthesis.

Conclusions
The studies reviewed here indicate that nutritional mixtures containing protein hydrolysates, added leucine, and high-glycemic carbohydrates strongly augment insulin secretion compared with the high-glycemic carbohydrates only trial. When post-exercise hyperinsulinemia is supported by protein hydrolysate and leucine ingestion-induced hyperaminoacidemia, net protein deposition in muscle should occur. Thus, post-exercise recovery drinks containing these nutrients may lead to increased skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength in conjuction with appropriate resistance training. If so, such post-exercise supplements would be of considerable benefit not only to athletes but also to any invidividual who have lost muscle function due to disease (e.g., Duchenne muscular dystrophy). Future studies should evaluate their long-term effects on body composition and exercise performance.



What is already know on this topic

Both increased insulin and increased availability of amino acids are important to maximize the muscle protein anabolism.

What this study adds

This paper proposes that post-exercise hyperinsulinemia supported by protein hydrolysate and leucine ingestion-induced hyperaminoacidemia increases net protein deposition in muscle, leading to increased skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength in conjuction with appropriate resistance training.

Competing interests
The author is a consultant to BioQuest Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

PowerG
2006-10-03, 20:35
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Source: www.musculardevelopment.com

HenrY
2006-10-03, 20:49
ok?

DavidN
2006-10-03, 21:58
spam :B

Lizard
2006-10-03, 22:30
Jamen det där har jag ju tjatat om i snart ett år; att leucine är signalagent för anabolt upptag av aminosyror och att hydrolysat i dagsläget har en högre löslighet av EAA än andra former. Det utgår visserligen en del restprotein i ett Va/Ca hydrolysat men just de korta proteinsträngarna, peptiderna, gör att passage genom tarmväggen förenklas och därmed får vi en kraftigare amplitud på aminosyrenivån i plasma. Kruxet med dagens EAA (om man nu kan kalla såna här skitsaker för krux) är att de ligger bundna i tabletter (ofta) och i väldigt långa kjedjor (ännu oftare).
Vitargo + Fairings Rapid Hydro Blend + Optimums Grenade aminosyror (för att få upp leucinnivån - alt ASTs rena leucinkabbar) is tha shit.

Lizard

PowerG
2006-10-03, 22:32
spam :B

Spam?! *bs*

MrBulk
2006-10-03, 22:45
Det utgår visserligen en del restprotein i ett Va/Ca hydrolysat men just de korta proteinsträngarna, peptiderna, gör att passage genom tarmväggen förenklas och därmed får vi en kraftigare amplitud på aminosyrenivån i plasma.

Vitargo + Fairings Rapid Hydro Blend + Optimums Grenade aminosyror (för att få upp leucinnivån - alt ASTs rena leucinkabbar) is tha shit.

Lizard

Vad menar du med restprotein?

Fairings Leucin har inte samma egenskaper som Optimums eller AST? Och vad är "leucinkabbar"?

King Grub
2006-10-04, 05:45
Extra leucin till en balanserad EAA-blandning stimulerar inte protiensyntesen ytterligare hos unga.

We conclude that increasing the proportion of leucine in a mixture of EAA can reverse an attenuated response of muscle protein synthesis in elderly but does not result in further stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in young subjects.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Aug;291(2):E381-7.

PowerG
2006-10-04, 13:16
IJSNEM, 16(5), October 2006, Copyright © 2006

The Effect of Whey Isolate and Resistance Training on Strength, Body Composition, and Plasma Glutamine

Paul J. Cribb; Andrew D. Williams; Michael F. Carey; Alan Hayes
Full Article Table of Contents for Vol. 16, Iss. 5



Abstract
Different dietary proteins affect whole body protein anabolism and accretion and therefore, have the potential to influence results obtained from resistance training. This study examined the effects of supplementation with two proteins, hydrolyzed whey isolate (WI) and casein (C), on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine levels during a 10 wk, supervised resistance training program. In a double-blind protocol, 13 male, recreational bodybuilders supplemented their normal diet with either WI or C (1.5 gm/kg body wt/d) for the duration of the program. Strength was assessed by 1-RM in three exercises (barbell bench press, squat, and cable pull-down). Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma glutamine levels were determined by the enzymatic method with spectrophotometric detection. All assessments occurred in the week before and the week following 10 wk of training. Plasma glutamine levels did not change in either supplement group following the intervention. The WI group achieved a significantly greater gain (P < 0.01) in lean mass than the C group (5.0 ± 0.3 vs. 0.8 ± 0.4 kg for WI and C, respectively) and a significant (P < 0.05) change in fat mass (–1.5 ± 0.5 kg) compared to the C group (+0.2 ± 0.3 kg). The WI group also achieved significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in strength compared to the C group in each assessment of strength. When the strength changes were expressed relative to body weight, the WI group still achieved significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in strength compared to the C group.

PowerG
2006-10-04, 13:28
Den optimala återhämtningsdrinken?

http://www.bodybuilding.com/store/bioq/myo.html

EiseltUK
2006-10-04, 14:35
Vad menar du med restprotein?

Syftar troligen på de icke-essentiella aminosyrorna, de som inte behövs för att stimulera proteinsyntesen.

Fairings Leucin har inte samma egenskaper som Optimums eller AST? Och vad är "leucinkabbar"?

Lizard nämde nog bara AST som exempel. Kabbar = kapslar.

Extra leucin till ett vassleprotein/hydrolysat är nog bara en poäng om man antingen tar väldigt små mängder protein alt att man sprider ut intaget under en längre tid.

Om jag skulle ta rent leucin skulle jag ta det separat och på samma sätt som man tar EAA.

EiseltUK
2006-10-04, 14:37
Den optimala återhämtningsdrinken?

http://www.bodybuilding.com/store/bioq/myo.html

Gillar speciellt när de skriver: SynthaZene (Beta vulgaris powder...). :D

aliquis
2006-10-04, 14:40
IJSNEM, 16(5), October 2006, Copyright © 2006

The Effect of Whey Isolate and Resistance Training on Strength, Body Composition, and Plasma Glutamine

Paul J. Cribb; Andrew D. Williams; Michael F. Carey; Alan Hayes
Full Article Table of Contents for Vol. 16, Iss. 5



Abstract
Different dietary proteins affect whole body protein anabolism and accretion and therefore, have the potential to influence results obtained from resistance training. This study examined the effects of supplementation with two proteins, hydrolyzed whey isolate (WI) and casein (C), on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine levels during a 10 wk, supervised resistance training program. In a double-blind protocol, 13 male, recreational bodybuilders supplemented their normal diet with either WI or C (1.5 gm/kg body wt/d) for the duration of the program. Strength was assessed by 1-RM in three exercises (barbell bench press, squat, and cable pull-down). Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma glutamine levels were determined by the enzymatic method with spectrophotometric detection. All assessments occurred in the week before and the week following 10 wk of training. Plasma glutamine levels did not change in either supplement group following the intervention. The WI group achieved a significantly greater gain (P < 0.01) in lean mass than the C group (5.0 ± 0.3 vs. 0.8 ± 0.4 kg for WI and C, respectively) and a significant (P < 0.05) change in fat mass (–1.5 ± 0.5 kg) compared to the C group (+0.2 ± 0.3 kg). The WI group also achieved significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in strength compared to the C group in each assessment of strength. When the strength changes were expressed relative to body weight, the WI group still achieved significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in strength compared to the C group.Var ju hydrolysat mot kasein, men ändå riktigt coolt att de ökade så mycket mer.

PowerG
2006-10-04, 15:26
Gillar speciellt när de skriver: SynthaZene (Beta vulgaris powder...). :D

MyoZene Insulinotropic/Anabolic Proprietary Blend: 18g
-L-Leucine
-Creatine Monohydrate
-L-Glutamine
-L-Taurine

Other Ingredients:
ProtaZeneTM (Ultra high D.H. complete spectrum whey protein hydrolysate [providing fast-acting, low-molecular-weight di- and tripeptides]), pharmaceutical grade dextrose, spray-dried and enzymatically converted maltodextrin, malic acid, citric acid, SynthaZene (Beta vulgaris powder, L-carnitine L-tartrate, calcium-ketoisocaproic acid), natural and artificial flavors, sucralose, red # 40. Contains milk.



Mvh,

PowerGirl

EiseltUK
2006-10-04, 17:46
Var ju hydrolysat mot kasein, men ändå riktigt coolt att de ökade så mycket mer.



Studien är gjort av Paul Cribb så man bör nog helst se mer oberoende studier innan man hoppas av glädje.

Den här studien är ganska intressant:

Effects of resistance training and protein plus amino acid
supplementation on muscle anabolism, mass, and strength.
Amino Acids. 2006 Sep 20; [Epub ahead of print]

"This study examined 10 wks of resistance training and the
ingestion of supplemental protein and amino acids on muscle performance and markers of muscle anabolism. Nineteen untrained males were randomly assigned to supplement groups containing either 20 g protein (14 g whey and casein protein, 6 g free amino acids) or 20 g dextrose placebo ingested 1 h before and after exercise for a total of 40 g=d. Participants exercised 4 times=wk using 3 sets of 6–8 repetitions at 85–90% of the one repetition maximum."

Resultat:

Variable PLC PRO
Body Mass (kg)
Wk 0 78.63 81.46
Wk 10 82.98 88.43
Body Mass 4.35 7.00

Body Water (kg)
Wk 0 46.76 46.05
Wk 10 49.22 49.44
Body Water 2.46 3.39

Body Fat (%)
Wk 0 19.95 21.52
Wk 10 18.88 19.46
Body Fat -1.07 -2.06


Fat Mass (kg)
Wk 0 16.15 18.81
Wk 10 15.93 17.68
Fat Mass -0.22 -1.13

Fat-Free Mass (kg)
Wk 0 61.15 63.22
Wk 10 63.85 68.84
Fat-free mass 2.70 5.62


De tog då protein+AA en timme före träning och direkt efter träning - alltså troligen inte optimalt. Det är inte heller optimalt att ta AA/EAA samtidigt med proteinet.

aliquis
2006-10-04, 18:43
Studien är gjort av Paul Cribb så man bör nog helst se mer oberoende studier innan man hoppas av glädje.Mr AST? :D

Shakern är ju bra iaf!

PowerG
2006-10-04, 19:03
Mr AST? :D

Yep.

Sverker
2006-10-04, 19:44
Rest protein = kvarvarande intakt protein efter hydrolyse. Dvs peptider och proteiner på > 2 000 Dalton ?




Vågar PowerG sig på ett eget referat med kommentarer på all den text som klistrats in ?

z_bumbi
2006-10-04, 20:01
Anssi H. Manninen

En person som oftast är väldigt förvirrad, om vi nu ska kolla vilka som har gjort studierna och varför. (AST dök ju upp tidigare.)

Edit: Han publiceras även ofta i en tidning som har extremt kort tid mellan inlämning och publicering så en del undrar hur väl granskningen utförs.

PowerG
2006-10-04, 20:40
Edit: Han publiceras även ofta i en tidning som har extremt kort tid mellan inlämning och publicering så en del undrar hur väl granskningen utförs.

Nutrition & Metabolism?

http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/

EiseltUK
2006-10-05, 15:39
Edit: Han publiceras även ofta i en tidning som har extremt kort tid mellan inlämning och publicering så en del undrar hur väl granskningen utförs.

Muscular Development?

http://www.musculardevelopment.com

PowerG
2006-10-05, 16:15
Muscular Development :thumbup:

z_bumbi
2006-10-05, 17:30
Muscular Development?

http://www.musculardevelopment.com

JISSN and Nutr metab, jag kommer inte ihåg vilken det är som har väldigt kort tid mellan inlämning och publicering men det går väl att kolla upp för den som är intresserad.

MD är ju en "muscelfictontidning" (Eller var det i alla fall när jag brukade läsa den.)

EiseltUK
2006-10-05, 17:43
JISSN and Nutr metab, jag kommer inte ihåg vilken det är som har väldigt kort tid mellan inlämning och publicering men det går väl att kolla upp för den som är intresserad.

MD är ju en "muscelfictontidning" (Eller var det i alla fall när jag brukade läsa den.)

MD har troligen den kortaste tiden mellan materialinlämning och publicering. :D

PowerG
2006-10-05, 17:54
and Nutr metab, jag kommer inte ihåg vilken det är som har väldigt kort tid mellan inlämning och publicering men det går väl att kolla upp för den som är intresserad.

"Peer review policies

Manuscripts are reviewed by one Associate Editor and one or more ad hoc reviewers. Editors and reviewers generally remain anonymous. The Editors-in-Chief review final recommendations and the final summary statement for style and constructive and collegial tone. Final decisions are then sent to the authors.
Instructions to reviewers: In deciding whether to recommend the manuscript to be accepted or rejected, or to ask for major or minor revisions, reviewers ask whether the manuscript provides a major advancement in science, and whether the scientific community is well served by its publication. Peer-reviewers will evaluate soundness of experimental approaches, clarity of presentations, and appropriate citations of published articles. Manuscripts are selected on the basis of originality, scientific quality and impact.
In cases of ambiguity, the Editor-in-chief or a third reviewer will be consulted. Clerical duties are performed by secretarial staff of the Department of Biochemistry at Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.
Edited by Richard D. Feinman and M. Mahmood Hussain, Nutrition & Metabolism is supported by an international Editorial Board."

z_bumbi
2006-10-05, 18:28
PowerG: Ja men det säger ju inget om hur lång tid det går mellan inlämning och publicering, eller för den delen vilka det är som granskar.

EiseltUK: Det är nog sant.

EiseltUK
2006-10-05, 18:29
Manninen är associate editor på blaskan. *kissass*